The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: 50th Anniversary Edition – Thomas Kuhn’s book, which is the analysis of the history of science. Its publication was a significant event in the sociology of knowledge, coined the terms paradigm and paradigm shift.
The main idea of the book – the scientific knowledge developed in leaps and bounds, by means of scientific revolutions. Any criterion only makes sense within a certain paradigm, historical paradigm. The scientific revolution – a change of paradigm to explain the scientific community.
The book received wide response. It became a kind of sensation among researchers in different subject areas, and among historians of science. «The Structure of Scientific Revolutions» is one of the most cited scientific books in the history of science.
the work was first published as a monograph in the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, then as a book publishing University of Chicago Press in 1962. In 1969, Kuhn added a postscript to the book, in which he responded to the criticisms of the first edition.
Getting started on a book Kun dated 1947, when he was a student at Harvard University and led the “Science” course for junior courses in the humanities, using historical examples. Later Kuhn commented that until that moment he “did not read the old materials for science.” “Physics” of Aristotle was strikingly similar to the work of Isaac Newton in terms of matter and motion. The conclusion drawn by Kuhn, was that Aristotle’s concepts were not “bad Newton” but were different.
I. Introduction. The role of history.
In this chapter, Kuhn calls into question “the cumulative model of” scientific development, according to which every new discovery – a step ahead of science. According to him, normal science is often inhibits innovation, progress here is the result of the struggle of competing scientific theories.
II. On the way to normal science
From the very first lines of normal science Kuhn defines as “the study, based on one or more past scientific achievements.” Normal science paradigm implies the existence – “community facilities”.
III. The nature of normal science
IV. Normal science as a puzzle-solving
Normal science as a problem puzzle is the touchstone to test the skill of the researcher, but not oriented toward new discoveries.
V. Priority of Paradigms
VI. Anomaly and the emergence of scientific discoveries
VII. The crisis and the emergence of new scientific theories
VIII. The response to the crisis
IX. The nature and necessity of scientific revolutions
X. revolution as changing view of the world
XI. Indistinguishability revolutions
XII. Resolution revolution
XIII. Progress, which are Revolution